Archduke Franz Ferdinand:
-Heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
-Assassinated in Sarajevo by a group of Yugoslav nationalists.
-His assassination set off World War I.
-He was a Yugoslav nationalist.
-Assassinated Archduke Ferdinand with a revolver.
-Died in prison in 1918.
Start of World War I:
-Was hastened by the entanglement of alliances among European imperial powers.
-The alliances were the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.
The Naval and Industrial Race:
-The race was between Great Britain and Germany.
-Both nations began to build up their navies to dominate the seas and secure trade routes.
-With a British decrease and a German increase in industrial production added to military competition, both nations began to see each other as enemies.
-Germany used the Schlieffen Plan, which consisted of a swift takeover of France and waging a defensive war against Russia.
-France had Plan XVII, which consisted of attacking at every possible chance.
Invasion of Belgium
-Germany invaded Belgium in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan to take out France through its left flank.
-Great Britain demanded that German troops withdraw from Belgium and respect Belgian neutrality, but when they refused, Great Britain declared war immediately.
The Western Front
-Attempted flanking manoeuvres by both Germany and France resulted in a ‘race to the sea’ where battles were fought and trenches constructed from the border of Switzerland and the North Sea. These trenches resulted in a deadlock until 1918.
-Barbed wire was used to halt the advances of troops.
-The machine gun was a defensive weapon which killed entire lines of enemy troops.
-Poison gas was also widely used.
-Artillery was a series of coordinated canon attacks which were used before every attack.
-Tanks which were mostly ineffective were used to crush trenches.
-Airplanes were used almost entirely for reconnaissance.
The Eastern Front:
-The front lines here were highly fluid.
-Russia made a short-lived offensive into Prussia but was beat back severely.
-Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria fought Russian and British forces in Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
The Home Front:
-In the home nations, men were conscripted for war, women went to work in factories, governments spread propaganda, and militarised civilian industries.
-European powers crew resources and men from their colonies and took their conflicts there as well.
-The entrance of Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and the United States signals a global conflict.
-The siege of Gallipoli was a failed British attempt to take the Bosporus strait.
-Many naval battles were fought in the Pacific, the North Sea, and the South Atlantic.
-The battles of Somme and Verdun were two major ones in the continent.
The March Revolution:
-An attempt to force Tsar Nicholas II out of the throne due to deteriorating conditions in Russia.
Tsar Nicholas II:
-Ruler of Russia, from 1894-1917.
-Last Ruler of the Romanov dynasty.
-Was killed by Red troops in 1918.
-His alias name was ‘Lenin.’
-He led the Bolshevik party from exile in Switzerland.
-He was transported by Germany to start a revolution in Russia.
-Lived from 1870-1924.
-The Winter Palace was stormed by soldiers and workers which passed power from the provisional government to the Bolsheviks.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk:
-A treaty between the USSR and Germany in early 1918 which ceded one-third of the USSR’s population and industry to Germany in exchange for an end to war.
-The United States entered the war in the side of the Allies mostly for the reasons of economic interests.
-President of the United States.
-Was at first an Isolationist but later supported intervention in the war.
-Wrote the 14 points of peace and supported the League of Nations.
Paris Peace Conference:
-A settlement between the victor nations if World War I that placed guilt and war reparations on Germany and carved out a new world map.
-He was commonly called Attaturk.
-He organised armies to drive out occupying armies.
-Founded the Republic of Turkey and emphasised economic development and secularism.
Nationalism and Self-Determination:
-New countries formed as a result of the breakup of multi-cultural empires. These new countries inspired colonised people to aspire for independence.
-Self-Determination is the ideal that people with the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious, or political background have the right to form states.
The Mandate System:
-The mandate system was a division of ex-Ottoman territories into French and British mandates which were basically colonies that were promised independence later on.
-The war greatly weakened European empires and spread revolutionary ideals between colonised people and threatened to dismember empires, but for now Europe held its power.
Chapter 35: Events and People
-Born in Austria in 1889 to a middle class family.
-His father , Alois, wanted him to be a bureaucrat.
-He left to join the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts but was rejected.
-Began political life in cheap cafes.
Changes to European Society:
-European society and culture changed greatly due to the horrors of war.
-The death toll and economic problems hastened these changes.
Revolutions in Physics:
-Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity which stated that space and time were no longer absolutes or constants but rather were relative to the observer.
-Werner Heisenberg published a paper detailing the ‘uncertainty principle’ which stated that one is no longer able to calculate the velocity and position of a subatomic particle. This thus derailed Newtonian laws of Mechanics and replaced formulas with probability calculations.
-He was a German born theoretical physicist.
-Obtained US citizenship in 1940.
-He warned the US government that Germany was developing an atomic bomb.
-Lived from 1879-1955.
-He was a German theoretical physicist.
-Lived from 1901-1976.
-Set the foundations of Quantum Mechanics study.
-He was an Austrian Neurologist. He was of Jewish ancestry.
-Lived from 1856-1939.
-Invented the techniques of psychoanalysis and furthered the field of psychology.
Revolutions in Art and Architecture:
-For artists and architects, reality had become terrible and they decided to move away from depicting realism.
-Artistic influences from Africa, Asia, and the Pacific influenced many contemporary painters.
-Walter Gropius made the Theory of Design where design must fit purpose. He then constructed the Bauhaus.
-He was a German Architect who lived from 1883-1969.
-Founded the school of Bauhaus which pioneered in Modern Architecture.
Debt economics, Agriculture, and Industry:
-When WWI ended Germany and Austria were forced to pay war reparations which were financed by US capital investments to France and Britain, who then flipped this money into paying war debts to the US, thus starting this circle of debt.
-Outside factors such as improvements in Industry and surplus agricultural production lowered world market prices and broke this debt circle.
The Great Depression
-With this lowering of world prices, farmers were impoverished and businesses failed which shocked the stock market and the Great Depression began.
-The great selloff of Black Thursday forced US lenders to withdraw capital from Europe, crashing those economies.
-With low consumption from Industrial societies, export oriented countries also suffered.
John Maynard Keynes
-He was a British economist who lived from 1883 to 1946.
-He is considered the father of modern macroeconomics, he developed a theory that encouraged governments to stimulate the economy with public works, redistributing incomes through tax, and increase the money supply to reduce unemployment and increase consumption.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt:
-US president for 4 terms from 1933 to 1945.
-He was a left leaning politician.
-Introduced governments programmes such as the New Deal and the Lend-Lease.
-Led the US in very turbulent.
Russian Civil War:
-After the Bolsheviks seized power and formed the Soviet Union, the civil war began as the white faction attempted to retake power. Lenin initiated the red terror where all anti-Communists were killed. The Red Army eventually defeated the white faction in 1920.
-Lenin introduced the policy of War Communism which nationalised all industries and property to the Soviet State. These measures proved unpopular and the Soviet economy contracted severely.
The New Economic Policy:
-Lenin pragmatically created the NEP, which temporarily restored the free market and privatised small-scale industries.
-Also, with this policy came increased economic development with electrification and expansion of education.
-He was a Russian Marxist politician, lived from 1879-1940.
-He held the posts of Red Army commander, and created a branch of Marxism called Trotskyism, which stated that revolution had to be taken to other nations and that socialism could not be constructed in a backward nation like Russia.
-He opposed Stalin and competed for the position of premier which he lost and then immigrated to Mexico where he was killed by a Soviet agent, Ramon Mercader.
-He was a Georgian born Marxist, and lived from 1878-1953.
-He promoted the idea of socialism in one country, and held the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party.
-He instituted the policies of the Five-Year Plan, collectivisation of agriculture, and the Great purge to develop Russia, feed its people, and rid it of internal enemies, respectively.
The Five-Year Plan:
-The Fir-Year Plan was a policy instituted by Stalin which set targets for a state sponsored expansion of Heavy Industry and Collectivisation of agriculture. Gosplan was the central planning agency which directed the construction of hydroelectric stations, power plants, canals, factories, railroads, mines, factories, and the making of farming communes.
The Great Purge:
-The Great Purge was a policy instituted by Stalin which was designed to rid the Soviet Union of Internal enemies. The policy was implemented with executions and an intricate system of labour camps.
-Fascism is an extremist right wing authoritarian nationalist political ideology. This ideology gained popularity with people of all classes in Europe, especially nationalists.
-Mussolini was an Italian fascist who took control of the Italian government in 1922.
-He lived from 1883 to 1943,and was in office from 1922-1945.
India had been a colony of Great Britain for many decades and had begun clamouring for independence. Two organisations formed to hasten this process, the Indian National Congress, and the Muslim League. During the Great War India rallied to aid Britain. After the war, many who searched for independence looked to ideas emanating from the US and the USSR.
-He was peaceful protester calling for Indian independence. He lived from 1869-1948, when he was assassinated by a Hindu extremist.
-Used the techniques of fasting and satyagrahi.
-He was a very prominent in the Indian nationalist movement.
-The India act was a British parliamentary action which gave India Self-governance.
-After decades of foreign exploitation and ineffective policies by the Qing dynasty, Chinese people revolted and ousted the Qing Emperor in 1911. What followed was internal turmoil, foreign invasion, and civil war until the Communists took power in 1949.
-He was a Chinese nationalist who lived from 1866-1925.
-He promoted the three principles of the people, which were eliminating foreign privileges, reunifying the country, and universal suffrages.
-The Kuomintang party now led by Chang Kai-shek, started the northern expedition to reunify the country, then brutally turned against his Communist allies. This initiated a civil war in China which ceased in 1931 to fight the Japanese and then reignited in 1945 until 1949.
War with China:
-Japan rose as a major power after its state-sponsored industrialisation process and prospered from selling munitions to the allies in WWI. After the Great War and during the great Depression, Japan sough to secure resources and stimulate its economy by taking colonies in China.
The Mukden Incident:
-Japanese troops instigated the Mukden Incident as an excuse to attack China and take its resources.
-He was emperor of Japan from 1926-1989.
-Heavily opposed research into the atomic bomb.
Resistance to European Rule:
-After the Great War, Africans took advantage of the fact that there were low numbers of Europeans on the continent and began to mount uprising.
Africa’s New Elite:
-A new class of Africans arose with European education and cultural influence such as Jammo Kenyata who spent 15 years ain Europe and studied at the London school of economics.
Anti-American sentiment in Latin America:
-As the Unites States rose as a major power after the war, it began exerting it influence on Latin America with policies such as the Dollar diplomacy and Good neighbour.
Resistance to American Neo-Colonialism:
-President Lazaro Cardenas of Mexico is a good example of this because he nationalised Mexican oil industry to keep profits for the people of Mexico.
Chapter 37: Events and People
Japan’s War on China:
-Japan had been at war with China and was on a quest to acquire colonies to supplement its resources.
-The Japanese government had taken a very militarist position towards China.
The Rape of Nanjing:
-After the major Japanese invasion, the Rape of Nanjing started with aerial bombings. Then for the next two months, Japanese soldiers raped and massacred thousands of civilians and pillaged the city.
-The Japanese invasion instigated feeling of nationalism among the Chinese people and united the factions of Communists and nationalists. These resistance forces totalled to 1.7 million soldiers who were able to stop the advances of 750,000 Japanese soldiers with naval and air superiority.
Treaties and Pacts:
-Germany, Italy, and japan signed a 10-year military and economic pact.
-Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact.
German and Italian revisionism:
-Germany forced Austria into an Auschluss (Union) and annexed most of Czechoslovakia.
-Mussolini had a policy to create a ‘new Roman Empire’ which led It to annex Libya and Ethiopia.
-The revisionist and expansionist policies of Germany worried Europe. Negotiations between Great Britain, France, and Germany took place. The politicians made a compromise that Germany would annex no more territory.
Blitzkrieg and the conquest of Europe:
-Blitzkrieg was a German war tactic that is described by swift air strikes followed by tank columns to eliminate enemy resistance.
-With this tactic, Germany was able to conquer Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Belgium, and France by 1940.
-U-boats were German submarines waging a blockade war against Great Britain.
-These submarines travelled in wolf packs to minimise deterrence by destroyers and airplanes escorting convoys.
The battle of Britain:
-Hitler ordered relentless air attacks against great Britain which he believed would be enough to defeat it.
-The Royal Air Force was able to resist these attacks and Hitler called off the offensive.
-This code-named operation was a German invasion of the Soviet Union.
-The German’s assembled an army of 3.6 million men, thousands of tanks and airplanes, and alliances with neighbouring nations.
-The invasion caught the Soviets off guard which allowed the Germans to advance 3,000 kilometres into Soviet territory, kill millions of Soviet soldiers, and reach the gates of Moscow.
-In the winter of 1941-1942, fortunes changed and the Soviets were able to beat back the Germans.
-The battle of Stalingrad signalled the turning tide of the war.
Cash and Carry and the lend lease programs
-The United States government initiated these programs to contain the aggressor nations.
-the cash and carry policy was directed to the British and the Lend Lease was a general policy where the US lent war goods in exchange for the lease of naval ports.
-After the United States froze Japanese assets and embargoed its oil exports, the Japanese government decided to go to war and secure more resources but it had to destroy US naval power in the Pacific.
-350 aircraft from six aircraft carriers attacked Pearl Harbour and sunk many ships and destroyed many installations.
Japanese victories in Southeast Asia
-After attacking Pearl Harbour, the Japanese gained control of many territories such as Indochina, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and many island in the pacific.
Allied Victory in Europe:
-After years of intense war against the German army, Soviet, American, British, and French forces made massive territorial gains and inflicted enormous casualties on the German Army.
-The Soviet Army liberated nearly all of Eastern Europe from the Germans and fought many great battles such as the Battle of Stalingrad (1942), Kursk (1943), Warsaw (1944) and Berlin (1945).
-The Americans, British, and Canadians with help from the French invaded the European continent at Normandy and proceeded to liberate Western Europe.
-Germany then unconditionally surrendered as the Soviet Flag flew over the Reichstag.
Allied Victory in the Pacific:
-After years of intense island by island fighting with the Japanese, the United States approached the main islands of Japan.
-After capturing Iwo Jima and Okinawa and conducting around the clock bombing of Japan, the United States decided to drop Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
-These atomic bombings in conjunction with a Soviet declaration of war and the following invasion of Manchuria, Japan also decided to surrender unconditionally.
-As the German and Japanese conquered lands for their war interests, societies fell under occupation.
-Various people reacted differently to occupation by either resisting or cooperating.
-With war interests in mind, occupying powers went to exploiting the local population and/or committing atrocities to them.
-The Holocaust was a systematic effort to eliminate the Jewish population of Europe and is an example of this exploitation/atrocity.
-To exterminate the Jewish population, Nazi party officials instated labour and extermination camps which were designed to work to death or kill Jews.
Origins of the Cold War:
-As the war drew to and the Allies debated on what to do with the liberated territories, two camps based on ideology arose.
-The Soviet Union having liberated Eastern Europe claimed that friendly governments should be installed to prevent further attacks.
-The United States and Great Britain insisted on creating democratic and capitalist governments.
The Post-war Conferences:
-The first conference was held during the war in Teheran in 1943 where the Allies decided on how to defeat the Axis powers.
-The second conference was held in Yalta in 1944 to decide on the fate of the Axis powers.
-The third and final conference was held in 1945 to decide on the fate of the liberated territories.
-As the United States and the Soviet Union made lines on the continent of Europe, they both implemented plans for redevelopment of European nations.
-These plans, the Marshall plan and the Molotov Plan were economic aid packages.
-The United States also implemented the Truman Doctrine which stated that it do all in its power to contain the spread of Communism.
-The United States along various Western European nations in 1949 formed NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) to deter a Soviet attack.
-The Soviet Union in turn formed the Warsaw Pact to deter an attack from the United States.
The United Nations:
-As part of the peace accords, an international instrument was formed called the United Nations.
-This organisation was a dialogue forum to maintain world peace.
-Arab states, except Palestine, gained independence after WW II.
-Zionists wanted to make a state for Jews. They were supported by the Bellflower Declaration.
-UN proposed diving into two sates, Palestine and Israel; Arabs opposed.
-In 1947, British withdrew; civil war broke out, Jews proclaimed the state Israel.
-Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized power in 1952. They committed themselves to opposing Israel and taking command of the Arab world.
-Mao reunited China under communism.
-Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) was an effort to catch up with industrial nations.
-Deng Xiaoping regained power in 1981, but was assassinated in 1991.
-1966: Nehru’s daughter, Indira Ganghi, was prime minister in India.
-Adopted harsh policy of birth control: involuntary sterilization; voted out in 1977.